Alongside subcontractors who handle plumbing, HVAC (that is heating, ventilation, and air conditioning), and electricians, welders are often key members of the team involved in the construction of a building.
Welders will work closely with plumbing engineers to assure that connections between pipes, both supply and wastewater, are solid and secure. A welder’s services may also be needed for structural elements as with, for example, a steel frame building where columns, beams, and trusses may be welded to other supports. Finally, you may find yourself calling a welder for the installation of some non-structural or architectural steel elements such as stair rails, awnings, vent hoods or shelving.
Though welding symbols are usually reserved for shop drawings from fabricators, builders should know how to recognize them on structural drawings within a set of blueprints, as builders are responsible for making sure the various aspects of a construction project are coming...
Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineers—known as “MEP” engineers—use scientific principles to design and build the functional and mechanical systems of a building. People in the architecture world like to think of MEP engineers as the builders and maintainers of a structure’s central nervous system. Every mechanical function that occurs in a building—from ensuring air flow and quality to planning electronic and communications systems, to laying out complex piping routes—is performed by an MEP engineer.
Often, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems are delivered in a bundle, even though different tradespeople execute the work. An MEP engineer must understand how each of the systems cooperates with and impacts the others. They must understand mechanics, fluids, heat transfer, chemistry, and electricity. And as houses grow smarter and more efficient, MEP engineers must also be ahead of the curve, developing smart lighting systems...
An architectural plan, or set of blueprints, is created by architects, engineers, and designers to lay out all the construction specifications of a house, such as dimensions, building materials, installation methods, techniques, and even the order in which these things must be accomplished.
The number of details that must be included in a complete set of blueprints is so large that architects reduce the information on the drawings to a set of standardized symbols and abbreviations in order to make the drawing easier to read and less cluttered.
For reference, every set of architectural drawings includes a symbol legend. If you aren’t familiar with a symbol, you will be able to find it in the legend. Floor plan notes give additional context for the building. For instance, the notes can clarify exactly to what point on a wall dimensions should be measured.
Most plans include symbols that are a combination of:
The construction industry is incredibly exciting for those who are ambitious, entrepreneurial, and eager to see the fruit of their work in the real world. Job growth in construction is expected to be significantly above average in the near future, thanks to a significant gap between the number of workers employed in the sector and the need for them. The Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts that employment within construction will grow by 10 percent over the next decade—and that’s coming on top of steady growth that started around 2010.
Demand from both the public and private sectors fuels the construction industry. The United States must upgrade or replace aging infrastructural buildings, and incorporate the latest advances in construction materials and technology into existing buildings. The COVID-19 pandemic—while forcing a pause in the global economy—may also lead to new streams of construction work, as commercial and residential real estate will...
The construction industry uses a variety of building materials for different aspects of a home build. Architects consult with structural engineers on the load-bearing capabilities of the materials with which they design, and the most common materials are concrete, steel, wood, masonry, and stone. Each has different strength, weight, and durability, which makes it right for various uses. There are national standards and testing methods that govern the use of building materials in the construction industry, so that they can be relied on for providing structural integrity. Architects also choose materials based on cost and aesthetics.
Building materials are usually categorized into two sources: natural and manmade. Materials such as stone and wood are natural, and concrete, masonry, and steel are manmade. But both must be prepared or treated before they’re used in building. Here is a list of building materials that are commonly used in construction.
One of the most important decisions you’ll make when building a house is determining the kind of foundation it will rest on. After all, the foundation serves the essential functions of keeping your home in place even as the ground beneath it might shift, insulating it, keeping the moisture out, and keeping it level—even if your house is built on a hill with a 45-degree angle. Builders choose foundations based on the home’s location and climate, soil conditions and area humidity, and of course, the budget.
There are five main foundation types and a handful of important variations.
A full basement foundation begins with a hole of at least eight feet deep to accommodate an underground living space whose floor space matches most or all of the home’s ground level. You’ll place structural foundation walls on concrete footings that run the perimeter of the basement. Those footings need to be...
Building architects and designers are responsible for communicating countless things about a building’s construction: where it should be located on the lot, how it should be built, what materials should be used, what it should look like, and where the MEP systems that make it function go. To save space on blueprints and simplify information sharing, designers use a set of abbreviations and acronyms.
Most of these abbreviations are standard across the trades. But some architects might use their own abbreviations that aren’t standard or well known. So the title page of the architectural package includes an abbreviations block to help you decode these custom...
A floorplan is the building plan that is most familiar to most people: a bird’s-eye view of a building with all the elements laid out on a horizontal plane. A section, however, gives a vertical view—which is equally essential.
Professional builder Jordan Smith likens sectional views to taking a laser and slicing it through a part of the construction, so that you can see how elements of a building fit together vertically. In his Introduction to Reading Blueprints class, he explains:
“On a floor plan, we take a laser and we cut the house in half horizontally. We set the roof off to the side, we look down from the top, and we see our walls and our floor without the roof getting in our way. Sections are very similar to a floor plan, but instead of looking from the top down, we're looking across at the vertical section of a house. We're looking at the exterior of a house, and then we take our laser and we cut a slice off the...
A reflected ceiling plan (RCP) is a print that shows you the dimensions, materials, and other key information about the ceiling of each of the rooms represented on your blueprint. It takes its name from the idea that you are looking down at the ceiling as though there were a mirror on the floor reflecting the ceiling’s plan back to you.
Architects and builders draw reflected ceiling plans this way so that the orientation of the floor plan and the orientation of the ceiling plan are the same—and therefore easier to read. In other words, you are looking down at a view of both the ceiling and the floor.
In his Introduction to Reading Blueprints course, builder and craftsman Jordan Smith explains:
“Sometimes we'll do a reflected ceiling plan on the floor plan, which means that whatever's happening up on the ceiling is reflected down on the floor and then drawn for our benefit as builders.”
Think of it as an engineering document that is...
If you’re building a simple project like a shed, simply sketching the details on a piece of paper will give you most of the information you need. But when you’re building a house or commercial project, you need a far more detailed plan.
A site plan—sometimes called a plot plan—is an architectural document that functions as a readable map of a building site, giving you all the details you need to know about how the structure will be oriented on the lot. A builder or contractor will create a diagram that shows the plot of land and its property lines, along with its landscape features, structural elements, setbacks, driveways, utility poles and power lines, fencing, and on-site structures.
Even landscape elements that don’t sit right on your property might be recorded on a site plan, says Jordan Smith, because the site notes can contain valuable information that impact your property. For instance, a tree on a...