In the building trades, the tape measure is an essential measuring tool that will help you tackle projects both big and small—everything from estimate to build. Getting familiar with the measurements on a tape will also help you work faster and more efficiently. With enough practice, reading a tape measure down to fractions of an inch will become second nature.
Get a complete tutorial on how to use a tape measure like a pro from builder and craftsman Jordan Smith in MT Copeland’s Hand Tools online course.
In the US, the standard tape measure will measure in Imperial units—that’s feet and inches—while the rest of the world uses metric tape measures to measure in meters and centimeters. No matter which measurement system your measuring tape follows, the basic anatomy of the tool and how to read it remain the same.
This is the housing that holds the coiled tape. It can be either plastic or metal,...
Whether you are doing general construction work, framing, or even finer work like finish carpentry, measuring tools are an essential part of your toolbox. But the tool you’ll reach for the most is the tape measure.
“If there's one tool that you use all the time—every single day—as a contractor, it's going to be the tape measure. When you measure a remodel and you're giving a quote, you use a tape measure. When you're cutting lumber, you use a tape measure. You use a tape measure for absolutely every part of the building process—from estimate all the way through the final punch list.” - Jordan Smith
When choosing a tape measure, there are some must-have features you should look for, but you’ll also need to consider your own preferences and job type.
Some tape measure features are non-negotiable, like a good standout length, solid body, and durable tape. Make sure that whatever tape...
There are two primary categories of wood: hardwood and softwood. Both are used in different types of construction. But the difference between the two doesn’t have to do with their actual hardness or density, it’s in how the trees reproduce.
To explain it most simply, a wood is classified as a hardwood if the seeds that the tree produces have a coating in the form of a fruit or a shell. Softwoods produce seeds that don’t have a coating, which are dropped to the ground. These biological differences do impact the characteristics of the wood, which in turn impacts their uses. Read on for a complete guide to hardwoods and softwoods.
Hardwoods are angiosperm trees, or plants that produce seeds with a covering. They usually form flowers to reproduce. They’re fertilized by birds and insects that carry the pollen to other trees, and when they’re fertilized, the trees form fruits, nuts, or seeds. These types of hardwood trees include walnut,...
Wood is one of the oldest building materials used by mankind. It was used to build everything from Neolithic longhouses to the first Temple of Jerusalem, built with the cedars of Lebanon. Today, wood frame structures dominate residential construction in the United States. More than 90 percent of American homes are built with wood frames.
However, a number of tragic urban fires—in the United States, the most significant was Chicago’s Great Fire in 1871—led builders to consider other options for taller, higher density buildings. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries, concrete and steel came to dominate the construction of taller buildings. Wood became reserved for interior details, occasionally (when treated) exterior cladding. At most, wood played a supporting role in projects where concrete and steel did the heavy lifting.
That is changing, however, thanks to engineering advances, new protective treatments for lumber, a desire to construct...
While the materials used to construct buildings are remarkably varied—bricks, thatch, stone, and more—one construction material stands out above all others in popularity: wood.
“Early humans lived under trees. As those trees fell down, they took shelter underneath the fallen trees,” professional builder and craftsman Jordan Smith explains. “ And then it wasn't long before they figured out: You know what? We can stack these to make walls or we can lean them against each other.”
From those humble beginnings, a type of construction known as timber framing came to dominate wood construction. The Horyuji Temple in Nara, Japan, built around 600 C.E., is the world’s oldest existing wooden building, and it was constructed using the timber framing method.
“So for everybody who has durability concerns about wood. we've got buildings that are still standing today that are 1400 years old.”—Jordan Smith
You may notice that home builders sometimes use “drywall” and “Sheetrock” interchangeably, or even as verbs—as in, “I’m going to Sheetrock this room”. In fact, Sheetrock® is a brand of drywall that is a registered trademark of the U.S. Gypsum Company, but there are no functional differences between drywall and Sheetrock®.
Since its invention over a hundred years ago, drywall has eased the process of building a house and embarking on home improvement projects. Before the advent of drywall, builders had to apply plaster in layers on supporting wooden strips called laths. Each coat necessitated ample drying time, and the plaster needed time to harden at the end of the process. Needless to say, lath and plaster was inefficient.
The prototype for drywall—a layer of plaster between four layers of wool felt—was first made in the late 19th century and was called Sackett Board, for its inventor, Augustine Sackett. The...
Heating and air-conditioning systems, plumbing, electrical outlets and wiring (including lighting), and other mechanical systems are typically detailed in MEP (mechanical, electric, plumbing) plans, and installed by specialists in their field. While builders don’t need to understand everything in the MEP plans, builders should be aware of how these systems will operate and where the wires and pipes will be placed.
Architects also include information about outlets and switches in their power and data plans—which are part of the blueprints package—though these are generally not as comprehensive as MEP plans. Some elements of these plans will have more direct implications for builders as recessed lighting, ceiling fans, and features that have to be blocked (surrounded by a small frame) for support.
Of the different systems on MEP plans, you’ll want to pay special attention to the electrical elements and their placement. Jordan Smith explains in his ...
Light frame construction (known simply as “framing” in residential construction) is the technique of creating a structure based on vertical components, known as studs, which provide a stable frame for interior and exterior wall coverings. Horizontal elements, called joists, run the length of the floor, or between walls or beams. The joists support ceilings and floors.
Today, platform framing—in which each story is framed on top of the previous one—is the method of choice among most builders. Using one floor as the platform for the construction of the next floor creates a stable work surface. It also allows builders to use widely-available pieces of dimensioned lumber, versus the longer or more natural cuts of wood used in older methods.
Timber framing, which involves fitting together large posts and beams and connecting them with wooden pegs, was popular in the 18th and 19th centuries. In timber...
Construction blueprints are technical drawings created by architects, engineers, and designers to put all the construction specifics of a house in one package to which the builder can refer as they construct the house. Although a package of blueprints can be daunting, as many as 50 pages long, the concept of the blueprint is simple: It is a series of two-dimensional representations of a three-dimensional building.
Professional builder and craftsman Jordan Smith explains in his class on reading blueprints:
“A blueprint is the fundamental plan for the construction of any structure. The print is what shows the builders, the electricians, the framers - all of the trades people exactly what needs done on any construction project.”
The main sections of a blueprint are:
Each of these sections uses...
An architectural drawing is the technical rendering of a house or other structure that is both an illustration of what the final home will look like and also a tool used by engineers, contractors, designers, and builders to execute the construction.
Architects use these drawings to develop their design idea into a proposal and to communicate design concepts. The drawings will reflect the overall appearance—internal and external—of the home, how it is oriented on a building site, and the layout of its living areas. Some of the drawings are more conceptual, to communicate the look and feel of the house, and some are technical, used specifically to direct how the building is constructed.
The architecture plan is the initial set of design schematics on which engineers rely to provide the basis for their mapping of the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems for the house. In a set of blueprints, you will find the architectural drawings first, including...